As we all know, my country is a big country of battery […]
As we all know, my country is a big country of battery production and consumption. While mass production and use of dry batteries, a large number of used dry batteries are bound to be produced. If the dry battery is not properly handled, it will cause a waste of environmental pollution resources. At present, the treatment of waste ten batteries mainly includes two types of harmless landfill and comprehensive utilization:
Normally, non-hazardous landfill technology is adopted for waste dry batteries containing mercury and lead, which are seriously polluted. The specific method is to put the used dry batteries into a special container and place them in a landfill plant with a double-layer HPDE impermeable membrane for landfill. This method is simple and convenient, but it has strict requirements on seepage control.
The comprehensive utilization technologies of waste dry batteries mainly include hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy. Hydrometallurgy has two treatment processes: roasting-leaching and direct leaching. The basic principle is based on the principle of zinc, manganese dioxide, etc. soluble in acid, so that zinc, manganese dioxide in the zinc-manganese battery and the glue can generate a decomposable salt and enter the solution. After the solution is purified, the electrode generates metallic zinc And manganese dioxide.
Pyrometallurgical technology is divided into atmospheric pressure metallurgy technology and vacuum metallurgy technology. Its principle is the process of oxidizing, reducing, decomposing, volatilizing and condensing metals and their compounds in waste dry batteries at high temperature. All work of atmospheric metallurgy is carried out in the atmosphere. It is the same as hydrometallurgy. Atmospheric metallurgy also has the disadvantages of long process, heavy pollution, high consumption of energy and raw materials, and high production costs. The vacuum method is based on the technology that the components of the used dry battery have different vapor pressures at the same temperature, and are separated from each other at different temperatures by steam and condensation in a vacuum, thereby achieving comprehensive utilization.
In addition, some battery manufacturers use physical sorting, that is, chemical purification technology. It is reported that 82.50% of useful components in waste dry batteries can be recovered as final products and intermediate products by physical sorting.