What are the characteristics of alkaline batteries?

Date:2020-08-20
Summary:

capacity The capacity of alkaline dry battery is higher […]

capacity
The capacity of alkaline dry battery is higher than that of carbon batteries. The reason is that the manganese dioxide used as the cathode has higher purity and density, and the internal parts (such as electrodes) are smaller in volume, which also frees up space, which helps increase the capacity. The capacity is 3 to 5 times more than that of carbon batteries. But the capacity of alkaline batteries will decrease as the output current increases. For example, the same battery can have a capacity of 3000mAh at low output current, but when used in a load of 1A current, the capacity will only be 700mAh, which is less than 1/4 of the original.
Voltage
The electromotive force (e.m.f) of a single alkaline battery, that is, the voltage when there is no load is generally 1.5V, but the voltage varies between 1.5V and 1.65V with different manganese dioxide and zinc oxide. When the load is connected, the voltage will drop as the output current increases, and the voltage will drop to approximately 1.1V to 1.3V under normal load.
Current
Alkaline batteries can output more current than carbon batteries, but smaller than ordinary storage batteries. Alkaline batteries with larger capacity can output larger currents because the electrode area increases and more substances can produce chemical reactions at the same time. Excessive current will heat up the battery during discharging. Generally, AA batteries can output 700mA without heating up significantly, while larger models of C and D batteries can withstand greater current without heating up.

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