Green battery refers to a class of high-performance, no […]
Green battery refers to a class of high-performance, non-polluting batteries that have been put into use or are being developed and developed in recent years. Metal hydride nickel batteries, lithium ion batteries, and mercury-free zinc-manganese primary and rechargeable batteries that are currently in large use, as well as lithium or lithium-ion plastic batteries and fuel cells that are being developed and developed, belong to this category. a category.
Metal hydride nickel battery (Ni-MH) has the same working voltage (1.2V) as nickel-cadmium battery (Ni-Cd), but it replaces carcinogen cadmium by using rare earth alloy or TiNi alloy hydrogen storage material as negative electrode active material. Not only does this new battery become a green battery, but also increases the specific energy of the battery by nearly 40% to 60-80Wh/kg and 210-240Wh/L. This type of battery was gradually industrialized in the early 1990s and was first used in mobile phone batteries. At present, although its dominant position on mobile phones is gradually replaced by lithium-ion batteries, its market share in mobile applications in Europe and America is still around 50%.
Lithium ion battery (Li-ion) is composed of a carbon which can intercalate and deintercalate lithium ions as a negative electrode, a metal oxide which can be reversely intercalated with lithium as a positive electrode (LiCoO2, LiNiO2 or LiMn2O4) and an organic electrolyte, and its working voltage is 3.6V. Therefore, a lithium ion battery is equivalent to three cadmium nickel or metal hydride nickel batteries. Thus, the specific energy of such a battery can exceed 100 Wh/kg and 280 Wh/L, and greatly exceeds the specific energy of the metal hydride nickel battery. In view of the above advantages, the production and usage have increased at an extremely high rate in the short years from 1993 to 2000.
The alkaline zinc-manganese dry battery (alkaline) has higher capacity than the ordinary dry battery of the same size and has the ability of large current discharge. In recent years, mercury-free zinc powder has been applied, which makes this battery a green battery and has become a mainstream product in primary batteries. At present, alkaline zinc-manganese dry batteries are still the most used power source for BP machines.
At the same time, countries around the world are also concerned about the chargeability of this battery. A US company has introduced alkaline manganese batteries, and the application of the products is slowly growing. This battery maintains the discharge characteristics of the primary battery and can be recharged for several tens to hundreds of times (deep charge and discharge cycle life of about 25 times).