Battery type and characteristics

Date:2021-09-26
Summary:

Distinguish by material:   ■Carbon zinc battery Also kn […]

Distinguish by material:  
■Carbon zinc battery
Also known as zinc-manganese battery, it is the most common dry battery at present. It has the characteristics of low price and safe and reliable use. Based on the consideration of environmental protection, because it still contains cadmium, it must be recycled to avoid damage to the global environment.

■Alkaline battery
Also known as alkaline dry batteries, suitable for large discharge capacity and long-term use. The internal resistance of the battery is lower, so the current generated is larger than that of ordinary manganese batteries, and the environmentally friendly mercury contains only 0.025%, which does not need to be recycled.

■Mercury battery
Mercury batteries have gradually been replaced by lithium-manganese formulations due to pollution and capacity

■Lithium battery 

■Ni-Cd Rechargeable Battery
It has been widely used by the general public in the early days. It can repeat about 500 times of charge and discharge, but after about 10 times of charge and discharge, the memory effect will occur. Another disadvantage is that during charge and discharge, the cathode will grow needle-like crystals of cadmium. Sometimes it penetrates the partition and causes an internal dendritic short circuit. Because it contains cadmium, it must be recycled.

■Ni-MH rechargeable battery
It is the mainstream rechargeable battery in the current market. It uses nickel oxide as the anode and hydrogen-absorbing metal alloy as the cathode. Generally, it can carry out more than 500 charge and discharge cycles. Because it does not contain mercury and cadmium raw materials, it does not need to be recycled.

■Lithium rechargeable battery

■Lead-acid battery

■Solar battery

In chemical batteries, according to the characteristics of whether the battery can be used to restore the stored electrical energy by charging, it can be divided into primary batteries (also known as primary batteries) and secondary batteries (also known as accumulators, commonly known as rechargeable batteries, which can be reused many times). Big category. Primary batteries can be divided into six series: ordinary zinc manganese (neutral zinc manganese), alkaline zinc manganese, zinc mercury, zinc air, magnesium manganese and zinc silver; secondary batteries mainly include nickel cadmium batteries, nickel hydrogen batteries, and lithium Types of ion batteries, alkaline manganese rechargeable batteries and lead storage batteries. In digital equipment, the commonly used battery types are dry batteries (including alkaline batteries), nickel-cadmium batteries, nickel-metal hydride batteries and lithium-ion batteries.

Dry battery: This is one of the most commonly used battery types. Many people have used dry batteries, but not many people know their structure. Generally, the dry batteries we commonly use are also called zinc-manganese batteries (Figure 1). It can be divided into carbon-zinc battery (Carbon-Zinc) and zinc chloride battery (Zinc-Chloride). Its advantages are high energy density, appropriate current density, and easy realization of mechanized production. In hypermarkets, these two types of batteries are sold in boxes at low prices. Unfortunately, due to insufficient energy density, this type of battery is generally only used for electronic products that consume less power, such as alarm clocks, calculators, etc. If you plan to use it to drive your digital camera, I'm afraid you will be disappointed.

Cylindrical zinc-manganese batteries can be divided into paste-type zinc-manganese batteries and cardboard zinc-manganese batteries due to the difference of separators. Among them, the paperboard zinc-manganese battery has different electrical properties due to the difference in formula composition. It is divided into C-type paperboard battery (carbon-zinc battery), also known as high-capacity battery; P-type paperboard battery (zinc chloride battery), also known as High-power battery. , Dry batteries in general supermarkets or retail markets are all such batteries, which are labeled Super Heavy Duty. The power capacity of the "C" type is about 20% lower than that of the "P" type battery. Generally, most of the batteries that come with the goods are this type of battery. Four types of packaging such as lead sheets are distinguished by mercury content (the basic standard is 15ppm), and there is also the difference between environmental protection and non-environmental protection

Alkaline zinc-manganese battery (Zinc-MnO2): It is an important role in dry batteries. This type of battery is what we often call "alkaline battery". Due to the large capacity, strong current and long-lasting use, the market for this type of battery is increasingly demanding.